Psychology is defined as the discipline concerned with:
a. the study of all physical stimuli that affect human sensations and perceptions.
b. behavior and mental processes and how they are affected by an organism’s physical state, mental state, and external environment.
c. the study of humankind and the importance of culture in explaining the diversity in human behavior.
d. maladaptive human behaviors and cognitions that are incorporated into a person’s self-worth during childhood.
2. Critical thinking requires:
a. creativity for creating alternative explanations.
b. treating all theories as equally valid.
c. low tolerance for uncertainty.
d. emotional reasoning.
3. Unlike modern psychologists, great thinkers of the past:
a. relied primarily on observations based on anecdotes and descriptions of individual cases.
b. wanted to describe, predict, understand, and modify behavior.
c. relied heavily on empirical evidence.
d. wanted to know what motivated people’s actions.
4. _______________ established the first psychological laboratory in 1879.
a. Sigmund Freud
b. John Locke
c. William James
d. Wilhelm Wundt
5. _______________ emphasized the purpose of behavior as opposed to its analysis and description.
6. _______________ founded the field of psychoanalysis.
a. Sigmund Freud
b. William James
c. Wilhelm Wundt
d. E. B. Titchener
7. Which modern psychological perspective focuses on how people reason, remember, understand language, and solve problems?
a. the learning perspective
b. the cognitive perspective
c. the sociocultural perspective
d. the psychodynamic perspective
8. Observing violent role models can influence some children to behave aggressively themselves. Which of the following psychological perspectives is this phenomenon an example of?
a. behaviorist perspective
b. learning perspective
c. social-cognitive perspective
d. biological perspective
9. Jacob studies how people change and grow over time physically, mentally, and socially. He is a(n) _______________ psychologist.
10. In almost all states, a _______________ is required to obtain a license to practice clinical psychology.
b. master’s degree
c. medical degree
d. certificate from a psychoanalytic institute